Frederick Douglass Bicentennial In his journey from captive slave to internationally renowned activist, Frederick Douglass has been a source of inspiration and hope for millions. His brilliant words and brave actions continue to shape the ways that we think about race, democracy, and the meaning of freedom.
Douglass, Frederick February —20 Februaryabolitionist, civil rights activist, and reform journalist, was born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey near Easton, Maryland, the son of Harriet Bailey, a slave, and an unidentified white man.
Although a slave, he spent the first six years of his life in the cabin of his maternal grandparents, with only a few stolen nighttime visits by his mother. His real introduction to bondage came inwhen he was brought to the nearby wheat plantation of Colonel Edward Lloyd.
Two years later he was sent to Baltimore to labor in the household of Hugh and Sophia Auld, where he remained for the next seven years. In spite of laws against slave literacy, Frederick secretly taught himself to read and write. He began studying discarded newspapers and learned of the growing national debate over slavery.
And he attended local free black churches and found the sight of black men reading and speaking in public a moving experience.
At about age thirteen he bought a popular rhetoric text and carefully worked through the exercises, mastering the preferred public speaking style of the time. Literacy and a growing social consciousness made Frederick into an unruly bondsman.
Inafter being taken by master Thomas Auld to a plantation near St. Hired out to another local farmer, he again organized a secret school for slaves. Before long, he and his pupils had plotted to escape to the free state of Pennsylvania, but this too was discovered.
Expecting further trouble from Frederick, Auld returned him to Baltimore in and hired him out to a local shipyard to learn the caulking trade. Taking advantage of the relative liberty afforded by the city, Frederick joined a self-improvement society of free black caulkers that regularly debated the major social and intellectual questions of the day.
After an unsuccessful attempt to buy his freedom, Frederick escaped from slavery in September Dressed as a sailor and carrying the free papers of a black seaman he had met on the streets of Baltimore, he traveled by train and steamboat to New York.
There he married Anna Murray, a free black domestic servant from Baltimore who had encouraged his escape.
They soon settled in the seaport of New Bedford, Massachusetts, where Frederick found employment as a caulker and outfitter for whaling ships, and began a family; two daughters and three sons were born to the union in a little more than a decade.
At the urging of a local black abolitionist, he adopted the surname Douglass to disguise his background and confuse slave catchers.
He also joined the local African Methodist Episcopal Zion church and became an active lay leader and exhorter. Soon after arriving in New Bedford, Frederick Douglass was drawn to the emerging antislavery movement.
He began to read the Liberator, a leading abolitionist journal edited by William Lloyd Garrisonand to attend antislavery meetings in local black churches, occasionally speaking out about his slave experiences. His remarks at an August convention of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society on Nantucket Island brought him to the attention of Garrison and other leading white abolitionists.
Over the next two years, during which time he moved his family to Lynn, Massachusetts, he made hundreds of speeches for the society before antislavery audiences throughout New England and New York State.
In he joined other leading abolitionist speakers on the One Hundred Conventions tour, which sought to strengthen abolitionist sentiment in upstate New York, Ohio, Indiana, and western Pennsylvania. His oratorical skills brought him increasing recognition and respect within the movement.
But antislavery lecturing was a hazardous business. Douglass and his colleagues were often subjected to verbal assaults, barrages of rotten eggs and vegetables, and mob violence.
And, as a fugitive slave, his growing visibility placed him in constant danger of recapture. He had to conceal or gloss over certain details in his life story, including names, dates, and locations, to avoid jeopardizing his newfound freedom.
At first, his speeches were simple accounts of his life in bondage. But as he matured as an antislavery lecturer, he increasingly sought to provide a critical analysis of both slavery and northern racial prejudice. His eloquence and keen mind even led some to question whether he had ever been a slave.
They advised him to speak more haltingly and to hew to his earlier simple tale. Douglass bristled under such paternalistic tutelage.Robert Dale Owen: Robert Dale Owen, American social reformer and politician.
The son of the English reformer Robert Owen, Robert Dale Owen was steeped in his father’s socialist philosophy while growing up at New Lanark in Scotland—the elder Owen’s model industrial community.
In father and son immigrated to the. Douglass, Frederick Frederick Douglass, oil painting by Sarah J. Eddy, ; in the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site, Washington, D.C.
National Park Service At a Nantucket, Massachusetts, antislavery convention in , Douglass was invited to describe his feelings and experiences under slavery. Douglass, Frederick (February –20 February ), abolitionist, civil rights activist, and reform journalist, was born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey near Easton, Maryland, the son of Harriet Bailey, a slave, and an unidentified white torosgazete.comgh a slave, he spent the first six years of his life in the cabin of his maternal grandparents, .
In , Douglass published his third autobiography, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, which took a long view of his life's work, the nation's progress, and the work left to do. Although the nation had made great strides during Reconstruction, there was still injustice and a basic lack of freedom for many Americans.
Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey; c. February – February 20, ) was an American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and torosgazete.com escaping from slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York, gaining note for his oratory .
44 African Americans who shook up the world Intro by Kevin Merida / Portraits by Robert Ball. T his is a list of The Undefeated 44, a collection of dreamers and doers, noisy geniuses and quiet.