Migration Worldwide President John F.
We are pleased to again welcome Philip Leigh, who brings us a long-form guest post on how the Reconstruction shaped the southern states. Shortly before the Centennial it was generally agreed that the chief aim of the Republican-dominated Congress was to ensure lasting Party control of the federal government by creating a reliable voting bloc in the South for which improved racial status among blacks was a paired, but secondary, objective.
However, by the Sesquicentennial it had become the accepted view that Republicans were primarily motivated by an enlightened drive for racial equality uncorrupted by anything more than minor self interest. Due to the presently dominant race-centric focus on the era, analysis of the economic aspects of Reconstruction merit dedicated attention, as does a reexamination of Republican motives.
Such is the purpose of this paper. Prior to the war the South had a bimodal wealth distribution with concentrations at the poles.
|GOLDSTEIN: Flawed carbon tax of the Liberal anointed | Toronto Sun||Native Americans in the United States This map shows the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites Clovis theory.|
|Introduction||If we do not rush to defend liberal democratic institutions, they warn, pluralism, minority rights, the rule of law, and democracy itself will perish from the earth. Indeed, a range of voices across the left in the last two years—from the Sanders campaign to democratic theorists such as Chantal Mouffe and others, in magazines such as Jacobin and The Nation—has called for a left populism as the most effective counter to the rise of the far right.|
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The classic planter with fifty or more slaves had a prosperous estate much like the fictional Tara in Gone With the Wind.
However, there were only about 8, such families, which was less than one percent of the total. Nearly a century after the war ineight of the ten states with the lowest per capita income were former Confederate states.
Similarly, years after the war started only one Southern state, Virginia, ranked within the top ten in per capita adjusted gross income as reported to the Internal Revenue Service whereas five of the bottom ten in were Confederate states.
The classic example is Mississippi, which ranked number one in per capita wealth, but was dead last at fiftieth in per capita income. The depths of post Civil War Southern poverty and its duration were far greater, longer, and more multiracial than is commonly realized.
People who talk of further retaliation and punishment…do not conceive of the suffering endured already, or they are heartless. Steamboats had nearly disappeared from the rivers.
One hundred million dollars in insurance investments and twice that amount in bank assets had vanished. Since their protective levees had been destroyed, thousands of square miles of Mississippi delta cotton lands were overrun with briers and cane thickets.
Returning Confederate soldiers often found their families existing in conditions of near, if not actual, starvation. Within thirty miles of Atlanta an estimated 35, others were destitute and near starvation. Thousands more like him rebuilt their burned homes and wrecked farms.
When there was a shortage of work stock, the few surviving animals were passed from neighbor to neighbor. By ingenuity, backbreaking toil, and cruel self-denial thousands of Southern farmers survived reconstruction…They received no aid from any source, nor any sympathy outside the region.
Infifteen years after the war, the value of Southern farms was only two-thirds of the antebellum figure. So great was the devastation and anemic the rebound that by the South had barely recovered to the level of economic activity prior to the Civil War.
Among such factors were property confiscation, Republican Party self-interest, discriminatory federal budgets, protective tariffs, unfair banking regulations, and lax monopoly regulation. When Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox more than two million fungible cotton bales were scattered across the South.
The cotton might have been an invaluable resource to prime the pump of Southern recovery but instead it was plundered.
Anything that could be sold for cash was targeted. Residents of Confederate states naturally ignored the tax but after territories were captured treasury agents selectively enforced it by seizing properties and selling them. Sometimes the agents bought the best properties themselves for the price of the unpaid taxes and quickly resold them at much higher market prices.
After the federal government ceased trying to collect the tax and in permitted the previous owners to reclaim such properties still held by the government, but those that had been sold to private buyers remained the property of the new owners.
The war-devastated South endured some the highest property taxes in relation to wealth in the history of the United States. One Republican state senator in South Carolina named Beverly Nash, who happened to be African-American and was an admitted bribe taker, explained: I tell you they are not high enough.
I want them taxed until they put these lands back where they belong, into the hands of those who worked for them.
You [ex-slaves] worked for them, you labored for them, and were sold to pay for them, and you ought to have them. When the Civil War ended, the Party was barely ten years old. It could be eclipsed, and possibly strangled in its cradle, if the re-admittance of Southern states into the Union failed to be managed in a manner that would prevent Southerners from allying with Northern Democrats to regain control of the federal government.
If all former Confederate states were admitted to the 39th Congress in December and each added member was a Democrat, the Republican majority in the Senate would drop from to to to Even more significantly, the Democrats would seize a to majority in the House of Representatives versus an extant Republican majority of to That meant that vassal governments needed to be established in the Southern states.
However, since the Constitution required that states elect their own representatives, Republicans needed a way to limit the number of Southern Democratic voters while simultaneously increasing the number of Republican ones. Since there were few white Republicans in the region the Party needed to create a new constituency.
Consequently, Republicans settled on two objectives.A useful overview of contemporary tax structures in OECD countries, with emphasis on the growing reliance on consumption taxation, the flattening of nominal personal tax rate structures, and the decline in effective corporate tax rates.
If about three months continue to be added with each passing year, by the middle of this century, American life expectancy at birth will be 88 years.
By the end of the century, it will be years. The 20th century was a time of enormous changes in American life. The beginning of the 21st century seems a suitable time to look back over the past years and see how the United States has developed, for better and worse, during that period of its history.
A few years ago, I shared an image that neatly summarized why the left’s fixation on income inequality is misguided.. Now I have something even better. I don’t know who “JIMBOB” is, but this cartoon he created is a masterpiece.
The car analogy is perfect. This century witnessed two world wars, the Great Depression of the s, the Holocaust in Europe, the Cold War, revolutionary social equality movements, and the exploration of space. Follow the changes in this decade-by-decade timeline of the 20th century. There is, of course, a legitimate argument for some limitation upon immigration.
We no longer need settlers for virgin lands, and our economy is expanding more slowly than in the nineteenth and early twentieth century.