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Anthropologies of the U. Criminal Justice System 6.
Department of Justice Three recent books, criminologists Michael D. Educational Enclosures in Black Los Angeles, reviewed in this essay identify how the criminal justice system both reflects and replicates historical injustices that remain deeply embedded in the U.
Each book uniquely demonstrates the complex means by which the ancillary arms of the carceral apparatus took on increasingly nuanced forms in the post-Civil Rights era, when sweeping federal, state, municipal, and dominant cultural reforms began to prohibit overtly discriminatory policing, arrest, and sentencing practices.
Yet despite such significant socio-legal reforms, these three books emphasize how criminal justice practices continue to curtail freedom of movement and civil liberties among people of color.
For the past three decades, increasing numbers of U. Significant restructuring of the academic profession during the same time period has indisputably influenced Anthropology essay in political number of anthropologists doing research in the U.
These significant shifts have encouraged anthropologists to engage with wider disciplinary and professional frames of reference in their analyses of the criminal justice system, including work from Sociology and Criminology.
Political and legal anthropologists will be particularly interested in the respective analyses of Stop and Frisk, From Deportation to Prison, and First Strike regarding the causes and consequences of mass incarceration, the role human rights discourse plays in the U.
Engaging with Anthropology essay in political Rights Era Criminal Justice and Policing Practices Stop and Frisk comprises six chapters and an epilogue that critically engage with constitutional and civil rights debates on the titular policing practice, in which an officer may temporarily detain, question, and search a person suspected of lawbreaking.
The book focuses specifically on the five decades of socio-legal change that transpired between two state supreme court cases related to stop, question, and frisk SQF policing: Ohiowhich legitimized the practice as necessary to public safety and Floyd v.
City of New York which found the practice unconstitutional because it disproportionately targeted people of color. In Chapter One, White and Fradella provide cultural context to these court rulings by emphasizing the profound questions regarding civil rights and public safety raised by this practice.
The authors focus particularly on analyzing court cases and secondary accounts of SQF policing in New York City — where police and senior politicians regard it as responsible for historically low rates of violence — but note that the practice has generated similar controversies in Philadelphia, Newark, Miami Gardens, Baltimore, Chicago, and Detroit.
Chapters Five and Six contend that SQF is an appropriate policing practice when officers have the training, administrative oversight, and inner resources necessary to adhere to procedural justice standards.
From Deportation to Prison consists of six chapters and an introduction that documents the expansion of the federal Criminal Alien Program CAP from the s forward as a means to remove undocumented migrants from jails and prisons overcrowded by dramatically intensified rates of prosecution and sentencing for drug-related offenses against U.
Chapter Four emphasizes how the CAP-related law enforcement practices on the Arizona-Sonora border increase criminal prosecutions of undocumented migrants who are then consequently banned from returning to the U. Chapter One connects the elimination of the arts from public education to the dominant cultural vilification and suppression of African American cultural practices that began during abolitionist movements against slavery.
Chapter Two describes how public high school students, teachers and staff variously transmit, accept, and contest the entrenched dominant cultural belief that prisons and militarization are necessary and beneficial to society by advocating particular disciplinary practices and employment options.
The conclusion contends that until Black epistemological frameworks become implemented in public education, dominant cultural models of education will continue to function as agents of oppression.
Race, Citizenship, and Rights in Contemporary Policing In Stop and Frisk, White and Fradella argue that SQF policing is an appropriate and effective means of ensuring public safety when used appropriately in the context of the technological advancements and foci on procedural justice that define twenty-first century policing.
The authors contend that these twenty-first century policing practices— particularly the use of body-worn cameras that document police encounters, external oversight, and rigorous analysis of data on stops and arrests — can enhance police legitimacy in the eyes of all communities.
White and Fradella provide numerous examples of how U. This evidence includes police killings of African American men including Eric Garner, Michael Brown, and Freddie Gray that sparked the Black Lives Matter movement, which, as a political movement quite curiously goes unmentioned in the book.
Carceral liberalism, the author contends, closely adheres to anti-discrimination legal parameters while directly facilitating intensified criminalization, containment, and control over migrants as well as U.
One clear example of this is Operation Streamline, a federal initiative since in which Border Patrol agents transfer custody of undocumented migrants — generally men from Mexico and Central America — to magistrate-run courts that see an average of seventy migrants a day.
Many of them are sentenced to between 65 and days in prison, after which they are deported and barred reentering the U. Even though border towns have some of the lowest U.
In First Strike, Sojoyner argues that state and dominant cultural forces have historically colluded in the construction of educational, cultural, economic, and geographic enclosures that deliberately seek to curtail Black freedom.Assignments and Evaluation.
schedule | descriptions | samples of topics | resources | evaluation procedures & standards. Schedule of Assignments [return to top] When applicable, assignment sheets will be appended to the dates shown below. Click on a date to bring up an assignment sheet, in PDF format.
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T+ Share This Story, Choose Your Platform! Facebook Twitter Katy perry essay. The prize winner will be announced in Anthropology News, and the winning paper will be considered for publication in the peer-reviewed journal of the Association for Political and Legal Anthropology, PoLAR: The Political and Legal Anthropology Review.
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Betrayal in julius caesar essays about life essay on leadership and . The notion of race as a social construct I am proposing is partially captured by various works. In Takaki’s work A Different Mirror: A history of Multicultural America, race is a social construct produced by the dominant group in society and their power to define.