Finnish Folklore by Juhani U. Lehtonen offers a brief introduction to Finnish folklore. Finnish Mythology by Pirjo Joki discusses the Kalevala, rustic mythology, and shamanism. Kalevala offers the complete text of this Finnish epic in Finnish from Project Runeberg.
The unknown is always more frightening than something you can explain, so inventing clever and intricate stories impersonating the forces of nature, our ancestors managed to soothe their fears. Seasons change not because the planet is a sphere revolving around a star bolting through endless space, but because a deity of life gets trapped in the underworld autumn and winter and then rescued spring and summer.
People get sick because of evil spirits, and nature is full of mystic creatures and spirits. The examples are numerous, but one common feature uniting them is that such impersonification and animism were a perfect way for ancient people to look at the face of the unknown.
Coaxing a samum, rainstorm, or drought on their own is impossible; when there is a deity standing behind threatening phenomena, it can be negotiated with. Rituals and sacrifices were aimed at doing just that: Forms have changed, but the essence remains the same: In this regard, it is particularly interesting to take a look at a modern folklore genre known as urban legends, or city legends.
The environment people live in has definitely changed.
We now know how to explain lightning and earthquakes; we know what are the stars and how physics works; we are no longer afraid of the dark. However, our minds are trained to feel fear. For thousands of years, fear has been one of the best survival tools at our disposal: Psychologists would probably call it basic anxiety, or existential terror.
The objects it is aimed at have changed, but the essence remains the same.
Urban legends mostly draw their plots and details from popular culture, or are inspired by the overall condition of a society.
Some legends reflect the fears of smaller groups of people, whereas others serve as a manifestation of mass consciousness LiveScience. Many of such stories possess a set of similar characteristics, allowing folklorists to define them as urban legends.
For instance, they are extremely difficult—if not impossible—to verify. The absolute majority of such stories start with the FOAF formula: Urban legends are often vague in terms of characters: This is rather typical: This allows one to subliminally convey a message that a story could happen to anyone, and lets listeners associate themselves with its characters.
Unlike the latter, the circumstances are much more detailed: Urban legends are mostly scary, although some can contain elements of humor.
And, most importantly, urban legends are not completely made-up: Let us take a look at some examples. Send this letter to X contacts, or Y will happen. This is a typical urban legend: The choice one has is simple: There were numerous warnings about him online.
Chatrooms were full of messages like this original punctuation and spelling saved: He has killed 56 women that he has talked to on the internet. This is no JOKE.!!!!!!Many modern scholars, if pressed for a one-sentence answer to the what-is-myth question, would define myth as “sacred narrative.” For example, Robert Ellwood argues, in his The Politics of Myth: A Study of C.G.
Jung, Mircea Eliade, and Joseph Campbell, that modern students of myth do not actually study muthoi, per se. This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. Urban myths usually push the lines of believability, and when one really tries to piece the story together and figure out the origin, he finds that it definitely does not prove to be true.
They also appear to come with an endorsement like the FCC, the police department, the FBI, or even a newspaper. Chinese restaurants have the most food related urban legends such as heads of cats and dogs being found in the kitchen, people’s pets getting cooked because of a misunderstanding, and people’s pets being stolen for food.
Many urban legends have to do with crime. A well known urban legend about crime is “The Hook”. 20 Exemplification Essay Topics on Myths and Religion. By Lauren Bradshaw. September 27, Speech Writing Coursework Writing Homework Writing Pay Essays University Papers Education Papers Graduate Papers.
You are allowed to use the original model paper you will receive in the following ways.