Both The age of the Universe is determined from its expansion rate: The radial velocity is easy to measure, but the distances are not.
Two scientists work at the same university in different fields. One studies Questions arising about the big bang theory objects far from Earth. The other is fascinated by the tiny stuff right in front of him.
As they focus their instruments on ever more distant and ever more minuscule objects, they begin to observe structures and behaviors never before seen—or imagined.
One day they leave their instruments for a caffeine break and happen to meet in the faculty lounge, where they begin to commiserate about what to make of their observations. Suddenly it becomes clear to both of them that although they seem to be looking at opposite ends of the universe, they are seeing the same phenomena.
Like blind men groping a beast, one scientist has grasped its thrashing tail and the other its chomping snout.
This is precisely the situation particle physicists and astronomers find themselves in today. Astronomers, using a dozen or so new supersize telescopes, also study the same tiny particles, but theirs are waiting for them in space. This strange collision of information means that the holy grail of particle physics—understanding the unification of all four forces of nature electromagnetism, weak force, strong force, and gravity —will be achieved in part by astronomers.
The implications are exciting to scientists because bizarre marriages of unrelated phenomena have created leaps of understanding in the past. Pythagoras, for example, set science spinning when he proved that abstract mathematics could be applied to the real world.
A similar leap occurred when Newton discovered that the motions of planets and falling apples are both due to gravity. Maxwell created a new era of physics when he unified magnetism and electricity.
Einstein, the greatest unifier of them all, wove together matter, energy, space, and time. But nobody has woven together the tiny world of quantum mechanics and the big world we see when we look through a telescope.
As these come together, physicists realize they are getting very close to a single "theory of everything" that accounts for the fundamental workings of nature, the long-sought unified field theory.
It details 11 profound questions, some of which may be answered within a decade. If so, science is likely to make one of its greatest leaps in history.
Question 1 What is dark matter? All the ordinary matter we can find accounts for only about 4 percent of the universe. We know this by calculating how much mass would be needed to hold galaxies together and cause them to move about the way they do when they gather in large clusters.
Another way to weigh the unseen matter is to look at how gravity bends the light from distant objects. Every measure tells astronomers that most of the universe is invisible. First, although there are ways to spot even the darkest forms of matter, almost every attempt to find missing clouds and stars has failed.
Second, and more convincing, cosmologists can make very precise calculations of the nuclear reactions that occurred right after the Big Bang and compare the expected results with the actual composition of the universe. Those calculations show that the total amount of ordinary matter, composed of familiar protons and neutrons, is much less than the total mass of the universe.
The quest to find the missing universe is one of the key efforts that has brought cosmologists and particle physicists together. The leading dark-matter candidates are neutrinos or two other kinds of particles: All three of these particles are thought to be electrically neutral, thus unable to absorb or reflect light, yet stable enough to have survived from the earliest moments after the Big Bang.
Question 2 What is dark energy? Two recent discoveries from cosmology prove that ordinary matter and dark matter are still not enough to explain the structure of the universe.
The first line of evidence for this mystery component comes from measurements of the geometry of the universe. Einstein theorized that all matter alters the shape of space and time around it. Therefore, the overall shape of the universe is governed by the total mass and energy within it.
That, in turn, reveals the total mass density of the universe. But after adding up all the potential sources of dark matter and ordinary matter, astronomers still come up two-thirds short. The second line of evidence suggests that the mystery component must be energy. This cosmic acceleration is difficult to explain unless a pervasive repulsive force constantly pushes outward on the fabric of space and time.
Why dark energy produces a repulsive force field is a bit complicated. Quantum theory says virtual particles can pop into existence for the briefest of moments before returning to nothingness. That means the vacuum of space is not a true void. Rather, space is filled with low-grade energy created when virtual particles and their antimatter partners momentarily pop into and out of existence, leaving behind a very small field called vacuum energy.The Big Bang Theory Religion as a creative subject 'Religious education provokes challenging questions about the nature of reality ' (DFE, p.7).This enables creativity through questionning.
Mar 20, · Big questions surround big-bang theory moment of the big bang." Big-bang theory envisions the universe beginning from a singularity — a mathematical concept of infinite temperature and.
The evidence for the Big Bang comes from many pieces of observational data that are consistent with the Big Bang. None of these prove the Big Bang, since scientific theories are not proven.
Many of these facts are consistent with the Big Bang and some other cosmological models, but taken together. A schematic representation of the “hot inflationary big bang theory” from the NASA website.
Depicted on the left is the period of inflation that scientists believe occurred instantaneously at the “bang.”. ACCUPREP – READING PRACTICE as well as ideas that are suggested or implied in the passage.
1. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model that describes the early development of the Universe. According to the Big Bang theory, the Universe was once in an extremely hot and dense For the following ten questions, you will see.
If the Big Bang theory proposed that everything was created in an explosion, it would violate the most fundamental law of physics. The only reason science can even exist is if we make the assumption that the laws of physics are constant anywhere and everywhere at all .