It also enjoys turning househusbands into afternoon talk show guests.
Whereas evasive pleasures center on the body, productive pleasures center on the mind. Creating resistant interpretations, such as by using an alternative interpretation of a mainstream TV show, produces a productive pleasure.
Embarrassing elites is a common popular pleasure. Much of our tabloid culture offers plenty of opportunity for productive pleasures.
Empowerment comes from producing your own meanings from the available cultural resources and making them relevant to the everyday world. These differences constituted a threat to the ability of the wealthy to control the social order for their own interests. Consequently, the disciplinary energy of the wealthy was directed toward trying to control or contain the leisure activities of the lower classes.
The significance of leisure for the working class is that it is an activity that lies beyond the workplace and is therefore not directly controlled by the company manager. There were two main strategies 1. Repressive legislation to actually stop the behavior.
Cockfighting, for example, could be outlawed. Containment of their vulgarities into socially acceptable formats. Wrestling and boxing could be subject to rules and officials in order to civilize them and bring them under the control of the dominant classes.
Historically, where popular behavior exceeds social control, it tends to be defined as immoral and as a threat to civilized society in other words, elites.
This is true to some extent, because all popular culture is inherently subversive to the status quo.
The pleasures and excesses of the body, such as drunkenness, sexuality, drug use, idleness, rowdiness these were all seen as threats to the social order.
They were undisciplined behavior. This same drunkenness in the working class, however, was perceived as threatening by elites. So an old peasant ritual characterized by public drunkenness and rowdy behavior the holiday we now call Christmas - might be appropriated or contained and turned into an official holiday.
In its 19th century version, this holiday was to be earned by the industrial worker for being obedient to the boss.
Pass the spiked eggnog please. Actually despite efforts at containment, many of us still get drunk and rowdy over Christmas. Wrestling was appropriated into a ring, with an official who would assure that civilized rules would apply.
The dominant class sought to turn wrestling into a controlled recreation. Their goal was to turn a vulgar activity into a respectable activity. Despite the attempt by the dominant classes to control or contain the lower classes, these efforts have had limited success.
People still get drunk and rowdy, and wrestling is still pretty vulgar. Wrestling as popular culture material Indeed modern wrestling makes a parody of rules and officials, signaling working class contempt against elites. Wrestling is filled with intentional bad taste and degradation, just as hip hop is - and for similar reasons.
Today, modern wrestling is similar to the medieval carnival. It is intentionally uncivilized a place where rules are made to be broken. In wrestling, the referee is not powerful, and even the wrestlers body borders on the grotesque. A sign of popular leisure is when the people themselves participate in the activity, and in wrestling the fight always spills out into the stands.
Wrestling as popular culture material Wrestling, therefore, is a parody of the world of the upper class, where they laugh at the wimpy aristocrat. This is why wrestling still appeals mostly to the working class. It is they who are subject to the rules of elites.
Therefore, this audience enjoys a sport of excess, where the cheaters and ugly characters win and where the guy who plays by the rules loses. We expect insults and vulgarities in wrestling because they symbolize a refusal to be tamed by the elite forces of discipline.Unit 3 Sociology: Beliefs in society 1.
Beliefs in Society 2. Definitions of Religion Substantive, Functional and Social constructionist. • Substantive Focus on the content or substance of religious belief, such as belief in God or the supernatural.
Exclusive as they draw . The best example of ideology in a society is the freedom to possess, develop,express and propagate ones ideology through peaceful means. I believe that this would lead to coexistence of diverse ideologies as new ideologies are born in the minds of bright individuals every single day.
In contemporary America, hegemonic masculinity is defined by physical strength and bravado, exclusive heterosexuality, suppression of "vulnerable" emotions such as remorse and uncertainty, economic independence, authority over women and other men, and intense interest in sexual "conquest". According to sociologists, a society is a group of people with common territory, interaction, and culture.
Social groups consist of two or more people who interact and identify with one another. Territory: Most countries have formal boundaries and territory that the world recognizes as theirs.
Like it or not, popular culture is an undeniable influence on how society perceives itself. When examining mass culture, one must keep in mind the equilibrium between how much we, as a society, affect the way popular culture is constructed and to what extent popular culture influences the way we view ourselves and shapes our ideologies.
Culture, as often defined in most sociology textbooks, is the way of life of a society. It is the sum of the ideas, beliefs, behaviors, norms, traditions, and activities shared by a particular group of people (Appelbaum and Chambliss, ).