Differentiated Instruction Description Differentiated instruction is a teaching approach in which educational content, process, and product are adapted according to student readiness, interest, and learning profile. Unlike individualized instruction, in which teaching must be directed to the specific needs and skills of each individual student, differentiated instruction addresses the needs of student clusters. Discover how research into how students learn led to changes in how teachers teach -- and the differentiated model of education. Learn More About Differentiated Instruction Education World has published practical articles on differentiating instruction by experienced classroom teachers.
The NRC noted that for students to learn to read well they must a understand how sounds are represented by print and be able to apply this understanding to read and spell words, b practice reading enough to become fluent readers, c learn new vocabulary words, and d learn to self-monitor when reading to make sure what they read makes sense and to correct their own errors.
The NRC also found that it was important that teachers provide explicit instruction in phonemic awareness and phonics integrated with many opportunities to read and write meaningful, connected text.
They purposefully used the word integrated rather than balanced. Finally, they noted that effective reading teachers adapt their instruction, making changes designed to meet the needs of different students.
In summary, the evidence to date shows that there are five overriding research-supported characteristics of effective instruction for students with reading difficulties.
Teach essential skills and strategies. Provide explicit and systematic instruction with lots of practice—with and without teacher support and feedback, including cumulative practice over time. Provide opportunities to apply skills and strategies in reading and writing meaningful text with teacher support.
Teach the Essentials Shortly after the NRC issued its report on the serious national problem of widespread reading difficulties Snow et al. The NRP, similarly to the NRC, concluded that reading instruction should address the domains of phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.
Effective classroom reading instruction includes teaching phonemic awareness in kindergarten and 1st grade, and for older students who need it and phonics or word study explicitly and directly with opportunities to apply skills in reading and writing connected text e. Effective reading teachers teach skills, strategies, and concepts.
Skills are things students learn to do. In reading, students must learn skills such as associating letters with their sounds such as saying the sound of the letter b and blending these sounds to form words [as in sounding out words]. Strategies are routines or plans of action that can be used to accomplish a goal or work through difficulty.
A word-reading strategy is described below. Finally, students must learn concepts, or ideas. They need background knowledge related to reading and to the topics they are reading about. In a typical 3rd grade classroom, there may be virtual nonreaders, typically developing readers, and students who read at 5th or 6th grade levels or even higher.
Many classrooms in which all instruction is delivered in English include students who are learning to read and speak in English at the same time.
A single classroom may include children who speak several different languages at home. Typically, this means that teachers implement reading instruction in small groups as well as in whole class formats.
Although a quality reading curriculum will provide the foundation for effective instruction, teachers will need to adapt their instruction for students who struggle and for high-achieving students as well.
Making Instruction More Explicit Students with learning difficulties benefit from explicit instruction in decoding skills and strategies, fluency modeling fluent reading, directly teaching how to interpret punctuation marks when reading orally, etc. When a teacher provides explicit instruction she or he clearly models or demonstrates skills and strategies and provides clear descriptions of new concepts providing both clear examples and nonexamples.
If the student is not successful, the teacher models again.
The teacher may have the students sound out a few words along with him or her. Eventually, the students apply the skill independently to sound out simple words. Students who are easily confused are more likely to be successful when teachers demonstrate and clearly explain what they need to learn. On the other hand, if confusions are not addressed and foundational skills are not mastered, it is likely that students will become more and more confused, resulting in serious reading problems.
Providing Systematic Instruction Systematic instruction is carefully sequenced, so that easier skills are taught before more difficult skills.
Letter—sound correspondences and phonics skills i. The pace of introduction of new material is reasonable to allow struggling learners to master key skills, and much of each lesson consists of practice of previously introduced skills, strategies, and concepts and the integration of these with the newly taught material.
Increasing Opportunities for Practice Published reading programs rarely include enough practice activities for at-risk readers to master skills and strategies.
Students with learning difficulties typically need extended guided, independent, and cumulative practice. During guided practice, students practice with teacher feedback. Students need both positive and corrective feedback.
Specific positive feedback calls attention to behaviors and processes the student is implementing well.
Students also need to know when they have made mistakes. Students also need independent practice, during which they implement skills and strategies without teacher support but with close teacher monitoring, and with reteaching when necessary. Finally, students at risk for reading difficulties need large amounts of cumulative practice over time to learn to apply skills and strategies automatically when they read, just as skilled readers do.
Cumulative practice means practicing newly learned items mixed in with items learned earlier, so that skills are not taught and "dropped.In order to reach all learners, teachers use differentiated instruction strategies.. These techniques are meant to accommodate each individual student’s learning style, readiness, and interest, and they involve using a variety of different instructional methods, such as flexible grouping.
This Quick Guide to Differentiated Instruction will put you on the fast-track to reach every student in your classroom with concrete ideas to access student different needs and . Teaching multiplication fact fluency is critical but there is a research based way to tackle it. This post has multiplication fact game, activity, and strategy ideas for you to use to help students master their multiplication facts.
Grade 3 multiplication, grade 4 multiplication, multiplication strategies, fact fluency. Rationale. A graphic organizer is a strategy for science instruction that teachers can use to help students record information from direct observation as well as from reading in order to create a descriptive model of an organism or a phenomenon.
Project-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy that involves a dynamic classroom approach in which it is believed that students acquire a deeper knowledge through active exploration of real-world challenges and problems. Students learn about a subject by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to a complex question, challenge, or problem.
Community schools represent a place-based school improvement strategy in which “schools partner with community agencies and local government to provide an integrated focus on academics, health and social services, youth and community development, and community engagement.”.