Apr11 Whilst gender equality has come a long way in regards to sports there is still room for a lot of improvement.
His doctoral emphasis is sports fitness and health, with a specialization in sport marketing. He currently holds a master of science in recreation and sport management from Indiana State University, a business credential from the Harvard Business School, and is a Stanford Certified Project Manager.
These topics include a history of gender equity in sports and Title IX, b gender equity in sport governance, c gender equity issues in athletics, d gender equity, sports participation, and Title IX, e and gender equity in coed sports. For each topic, the author presents an overview as well as a reason for selecting the topic.
Further, the author presents information about the importance of each topic to gender equity in sports, plus any relevant social, ethical, or legal concerns. In recorded history, one can find many accounts of where women faced issues of equity in relationships, their career, education, and athletic opportunities.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the history that surrounds the issues of gender equity in sport, what actions have been taken to provide equal opportunity for women in sports, the current issues facing women in sports today, the research surrounding the issues pertaining to gender equity in sport, and also to discuss the findings and present recommendations for further research in this area.
Title IX was initially enacted by the federal government to ensure equal educational opportunities for males and females, but eventually it was used to create equal opportunities for women in sports. Title IX was monumental in increasing the participation of women in sports, but women still face scrutiny and stereotyping because of social norms, which define women as being fragile, less capable, and passive.
Furthermore, sport has always been seen as a masculinized entity, and therefore, women are perceived as intruding on male boundaries. Recent and past research has shown that having a more balanced male and female board in sports governance contributes to a better work environment.
While Title IX has created more opportunities in sport for women, it has done very little to reduce the stereotypical image of women in sports. Further, it has done little to help establish equal opportunities in sport governance and the pressures women face in a hegemonic masculinized sport organization.
It is necessary to reduce the stereotype that women are not equal to men in sports and sports governance because although women are mostly given an equal opportunity, they are still less likely to participate in sports or to be given equal opportunities in sports governance because of gender discrimination and gender stereotypes.
Exceptions to Title IX include educational institutions that traditionally admit members of only one sex, institutions that train individuals for military service, and institutions whose compliance with Title IX would violate religious beliefs Furthermore, it did not specifically refer to athletic opportunities when it was first developed; however, subsequent interpretations and court cases set the tone that opportunities in athletics are also to be upheld to this standard The Three Part Test, issued by the U.
Office of Civil Rights This test 11 presents the following key points: Are participation opportunities substantially proportionate to enrollment? Is there a history and continuing practice of program expansion for the underrepresented sex?
Is the institution fully and effectively accommodating the interests and abilities of the underrepresented sex? Also, as it relates to sports participation, the general rule in both contact and non-contact sports is that when only one team is available, both sexes must be allowed to try out for and play on the team.
Further, the HEW regulations under Title IX permit an athletic department that receives federal funds to maintain separate teams for each sex if selection for the teams is based on competitive skill or if the sport involved is a contact sport Gender Equity in Sport Governance As was previously mentioned, women face gender equity issues as athletes and as sport governance officials.
There is a lack of women in leadership positions in sport due to the fact that sport is a gendered institution and that all processes operate within a hegemonic masculine norm 3. Furthermore, sport institutions have institutionalized masculinity as the operating principle within sport, which identifies male activity as privileged, and reinforcing masculinity and masculine behavior as acceptable leadership qualities required in sport 3.
Therefore, it is said that gender inequality has become an institutionalized practice within sport organizations. Within national Olympic governing bodies NGBs Based on this data, one can see the leadership positions in sports organizations are skewed towards male leadership, and this supports the notion of masculinity in sports as well as masculine leadership in sport.
Based on a study 23 on the influence of hegemonic masculinity on the rate of advancement of women and women in senior leadership positions in intercollegiate athletics, it was found that men maintain control of athletic director positions at the highest level of intercollegiate sport and have higher rates of organizational success.
Another issue affecting gender equity in sports government is the influence of power. One study 5 examined affirmative action policies, and how such policies are interpreted in sport organizations. Furthermore, recruitment and selection of women included a gender fit, which included that they have no young children, are well educated, held high jobs previously, had flexible schedules, and behaved properly based on the standards of male leaders.
Therefore, it was demonstrated that male leaders use power to ensure that male leadership remains dominant, and the participation of women is limited to those who fit the model of leader as determined by the men on the boards studied. Alongside the theme of masculinity comes the issue of access and treatment discrimination.
These types of discrimination occur at the organizational level and can negatively impact women in leadership positions in sport organizations 3. Access discrimination operates by excluding members of certain groups from entering the organization, while treatment discrimination occurs when individuals from certain groups receive less organizational resources than would be legally deserved 3.The resigning British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson said that, as mayor of London, he could not save female cyclists' lives because the EU would not legislate to lower truck-window heights when.
Sport, as with many other environments, is not an industry shared equally between men and women. Gender inequality remains firmly entrenched, particularly at the leadership and governance level of most organisations, despite the fact that women are significant consumers of and participants in .
Ethical Issue in Sports - In recent years, ethical issues in sports have been a major topic for discussion and media coverage.
One major sport ethics controversy that occurred in recent years was the Jerry Sandusky scandal at Penn State University. Before , 90 percent of the coaches of female sports teams were women, according to a recent study, "Women in Intercollegiate Sport"; today that figure stands at percent.
Insure4Sport has conducted a national survey focusing on attitudes towards women in sport – and it uncovered some incredible findings. Whilst the UK widely acknowledges that more should be done to promote women’s sports, sexism is still rife in the competitive sport .
The main issue in women’s basketball today is the inequality between women and men’s basketball. Over time the women have caught up with the men with having the same opportunities stated above in the history.
Although the opportunities are even the perks and finical funding is still unequal.