Her articles have appeared in "Lifestyle" magazine and the Sina Health website, as well as in peer-reviewed journals such as "Cancer Research. Soybeans growing in a field.
Revised Nov 16; Accepted Nov Abstract Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms.
The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola.
There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties.
Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation.
This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology. Genetically modified foods, Genetically engineered foods, Transgenic foods, Food safety, Allergenic foods, Public concerns Introduction Scientists first discovered in that DNA can be transferred between organisms Clive It is now known that there are several mechanisms for DNA transfer and that these occur in nature on a large scale, for example, it is a major mechanism for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria.
The first genetically modified GM plant was produced inusing an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. China was the first country to commercialize a transgenic crop in the early s with the introduction of virus resistant tobacco. The modification allowed the tomato to delay ripening after picking.
Infew transgenic crops received marketing approval.
A total of 35 approvals had been granted to commercially grow 8 transgenic crops and one flower crop of carnations with 8 different traits in 6 countries plus the EU till Clive Currently, there are a number of food species in which a genetically modified version exists Johnson Some of the foods that are available in the market include cotton, soybean, canola, potatoes, eggplant, strawberries, corn, tomatoes, lettuce, cantaloupe, carrots etc.
GM products which are currently in the pipeline include medicines and vaccines, foods and food ingredients, feeds and fibres. Locating genes for important traits, such as those conferring insect resistance or desired nutrients-is one of the most limiting steps in the process.
In instances, the product is directly consumed as food, but in most of the cases, crops that have been genetically modified are sold as commodities, which are further processed into food ingredients. Fruits and vegetables Papaya has been developed by genetic engineering which is ring spot virus resistant and thus enhancing the productivity.
Its single-handed savior was a breed engineered to be resistant to the virus. This was brought to market by Monsanto in the late s, developed for the fast food market.
This was forced to withdraw from the market in as the fast food retailers did not pick it up and thereby the food processors ran into export problems.
Reports say that currently no transgenic potatoes are marketed for the purpose of human consumption. This GM potato was made resistant to late blight by adding two resistance genes, blb1 and blb2, which was originated from the Mexican wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum.
Vegetable oil is sold to consumers as cooking oil, margarine and shortening, and is used in prepared foods. Vegetable oil is made of triglycerides extracted from plants or seeds and then refined, and may be further processed via hydrogenation to turn liquid oils into solids.
The refining process removes nearly all non-triglyceride ingredients Crevel et al. Cooking oil, margarine and shortening may also be made from several crops.
Canola oil is the third most widely consumed vegetable oil in the world. The genetic modifications are made for providing resistance to herbicides viz. Canola oil is a key ingredient in many foods and is sold directly to consumers as margarine or cooking oil.Genetically Engineered Foods, Volume 6 in the Handbook of Food Bioengineering series, is a solid reference for researchers and professionals needing information on genetically engineered foods in human and animal diets.
The volume discusses awareness, benefits vs. disadvantages, regulations and techniques used to obtain, test and detect. Thus, a major goal of plant scientists is to find ways to maintain high productivity under stress as well as developing crops with enhanced nutritional value.
Genetically-modified (GM) crops can prove to be powerful complements to those produced by conventional methods for . Genetically modified crops have been developed to enhance the nutritional value of staple foods and to increase small farmers’ yields through pest and disease resistance.
The use of genetically modified food in developing countries could improve the health of millions of people. Genetically modified food has generated much debate about the safety and necessity of such foods. Malnutrition affects over two billion people worldwide.
Genetically modified crops have been developed to enhance the nutritional value of staple foods and to increase small farmers’ yields through pest and disease resistance. “GMO foods,” “GMPs” (genetically modified products), and “biotech foods.” While some refer to foods devel Improved nutritional value.
Genetic engineering has allowed new options for im Use of biotechnology in agriculture--benefits and risks Ania Wieczorek Biotechnology. Genetically modified (GM) foods are foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally, e.g.
through the introduction of a gene from a different organism. -Improve resistance to pest and disease -increase nutritional value Mammals -research for human diseases -Pets (glow.