Department of English University: In when Victoria became queen of England, new era was begun in history of England. Like clouds that rake the mountains summits, Or wave that own no curbing hands, How fast has brother followed brother, From sunshine to the sunless land! And same as, Robert Browning was the only figure of this age, who after thirty years of continuous work, was finally recognized and placed beside Lord Tennyson, and whom future ages may judge to be a greater poet, even, the greatest in literature since Shakespeare.
More specifically, the essay will examine the role of, and interplay between these two concepts from the Bourbon Restoration and the establishment of the Metternich system in until the success of the German and Italian unification movements in Particular attention will be paid to the Austrian Empire, the process of Italian Risorgimento, or unification, and the Greek war of independence from the Ottoman Empire.
The aim of incorporating these varied territories into the discussion is to portray the diverse nature of the debate and to highlight the importance of context. Europe in the nineteenth century is portrayed in different ways. It is seen as both a highly turbulent era in world history, but also one that is profoundly transformative and the representing the dawn of modernity.
In this regard, the historical events of the nineteenth century can be seen as both a reaction against the Enlightenment of the previous century, as well as the laboratory for the practical implementation of Enlightenment ideas.
Throughout the nineteenth century, economic and social ideas, such as capitalism and Marxism, became part of the political and social discourse in each and every European capital.
Terms such as liberalism and conservatism also rose to prominence and became the standard-bearers for a mixture of new and old social, political, and economic ideas that were often in conflict.
To its supporters, nationalism was the embodiment of progress and modernity. To its detractors, nationalism was a dangerous force that threatened the existence of a particular way of life, ideology, and socio-economic framework which the concept of cosmopolitanism represents. Both terms, nationalism and cosmopolitanism, are politically loaded concepts.
Therefore, part of the focus of this essay will be to deconstruct and define the terms in order to demonstrate their often-fluid nature and often-politicised usage.
For example, the Italian nationalism of the early nineteenth century is often perceived as romantic and glorious, whilst the nationalism of the early twentieth century in Germany and Italy has a rather more sinister connotation. Given the complex nature of this topic, the essay will also attempt to provide a brief outline of the fundamental intellectual background to both cosmopolitanism and nationalism as conceived of in the eighteenth century through the various thinkers and philosopher debating these topics.
In addition, before attempting to discuss nationalism and cosmopolitanism post, a discussion of the pre-existing situation in Napoleonic Europe is also required.
This is important due to the influence of French history from the revolution in onwards. The French revolution was also important because it brought to light a new form of political discourse, in which the philosophy behind the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen could flourish, as well as the notion of a moral intermarriage between citizen and state, and the concept of civic nationalism.
Unlike allegiance to a particular individual or a dynasty, this new form of nationalism patriotism in the case of France called for allegiance to an idea, or a set of ideas that detailed certain rights and responsibilities.
Kant and Modern Political Philosophy. Rousseau defined the notion thus: In particular, Kant stipulates a moral framework for his understanding of cosmopolitanism in his work ofPerpetual Peace: It contrasts sharply with the views expressed by Metternich is his correspondence with Tsar Alexander.
In a letter to the Tsar datedMetternich expresses his view of the Congress system and its aims: Its Pasts and Practices. University of Kentucky, By analysing the ways in which thinkers and politicians with different social and political affiliations viewed cosmopolitanism, and similarly, the ways in which different views of nationalists led to distinct forms of nationalism, the essay will attempt to present a nuanced view of the relationship between nationalism and cosmopolitanism.
Pauline Kleingeld, writing in the Journal of the History of Ideas, begins her investigation into cosmopolitanism by dividing the concept into six separate but related subtypes.
The six varieties of cosmopolitanism Kleingeld identifies are moral, international federative, cultural, market, romantic, and legal. Moral cosmopolitanism is perhaps the most familiar or most visible form of cosmopolitanism today; the main argument for moralists is that human beings are all part of the same community morally and have a responsibility to each other.
Austria, like the German-speaking kingdoms and principalities, had been part of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in In this vein, it was a multilingual and multi-ethnic melting pot united under Habsburg rule.
The purpose of the Holy Roman Empire, one thousand years before its dissolution, had been the unification of European Christendom under a secular emperor with the Pope as spiritual leader. Austria presents an interesting case with the multi-ethnic Habsburg dynasty at its helm and the cosmopolitan nature of its governing elites.
Despite this cosmopolitan nature, the emergence of nationalist discourse within the Empire was met with strong enthusiasm by a surprisingly diverse range of social classes, albeit for different reasons. The structure of the Habsburg Empire lacked a focus on cementing its authority via localised, symbolic gestures.
Furthermore, the central administration in German-dominant Vienna paid its allegiance to a dynasty that was not entirely German speaking.
Nationalism and the State. University of Chicago, In addition, the influence of nationalist thinking must be seen as part of the overarching notion of modernity that comes into play at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
The initial and most significant form that nationalism took in the Habsburg lands was in Hungary.
In the first place, the notion of Hungary as a geographic entity harks back to the ninth century in one form or another.Sep 11, · Watch video lessons on Romantic poetry to learn about the lives and works of Lord Byron, Samuel Coleridge, John Keats and more.
Romantic Poetry in English Literature.
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Lord Byron chased women (and men), lived extravagantly, was constantly in debt, traveled all over Europe, and died at the tender age of 36 after joining the Greeks in their war for independence from the Ottoman Empire.
Oh yeah, and in the middle of all that, he wrote one of the most famous Romantic.
Lord Byron chased women (and men), lived extravagantly, was constantly in debt, traveled all over Europe, and died at the tender age of 36 after joining the Greeks in their war for independence from the Ottoman Empire. Oh yeah, and in the middle of all that, he wrote one of the most famous Romantic.
Lord Byron: Critical Essays on Poetry. How is Lord Byron a Romantic poet? Lord Byron (or George Gordon Byron) was a remarkable English poet significantly associated with the Romantic Era. The Romantic Era: Lord Byron Essay - Lord Byron, one of the most significant poets during the Romantic Era, influenced literature by impacting not only poetry at the time, but also by changing the opinions and values in society and how they viewed the meaning of love, life and death.
Dec 09, · In the same era, Lord Byron might assume the romantic persona of his own poetic characters, while Jean Jacques Rousseau might turn his life’s .